Enzyme production is a technology and method for enzyme manufacturers
to produce enzymes from microorganisms. There are many kinds of microorganisms. Almost all enzymes existing in animals and plants can be obtained from microorganisms, and the most suitable strains can be obtained by isolation and screening. Microorganisms multiply quickly, grow in short period and cultivate easily. The yield of enzymes could be increased by controlling the culture conditions. Microorganisms have strong adaptability. New and High-yielding enzyme-producing strains can be bred through various means of genetic variation. Therefore, many enzyme manufacturers
use fermentation method to produce enzymes, which has greater advantages than extracting enzymes directly from biological raw materials. The commonly used producing bacteria are Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and so on.
In general, the yield of enzymes is regulated by the corresponding synthetic mechanism. To increase the yield greatly, we must try to break this regulatory mechanism. The regulation of prokaryotic cells is now generally accepted by the operator model. The operator is composed of structural genes, manipulating genes and promoter genes. The structural genes encode the amino acid sequence of enzymes and manipulate genes to play a "switch" role. Gene switching is also controlled by repressor proteins that regulate gene synthesis. There are two ways of manipulator regulation: induction and repression. Inducers bind to repressor proteins, depriving them of their ability to bind to manipulating genes and turning the "switch" on. Some repressor proteins have no ability to bind to manipulating genes themselves, but can bind to the products of enzymatic action, and then to manipulating genes. Many enzymes involved in anabolism are controlled by this way. Therefore, the methods of adding inducers and reducing the concentration of repressors can be used to break down the regulation mechanism of enzyme synthesis. In recent years, genetic engineering technology has been widely used in the production of enzymes, which can greatly increase the production of original enzymes in microorganisms. The combination of genetic engineering and fermentation industry opens up broad prospects for large-scale production of enzymes.