Lipase enzyme is a triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, which catalyzes the decomposition of triglycerides into glycerol diesters, glycerol monoesters, glycerol and fatty acids. It is a special ester-bond hydrolase. Lipase enzyme takes amino acids as its basic unit and generally has only one polypeptide chain. Its catalytic activity depends only on the protein structure. Lipase enzyme exists in animals, plants and microorganisms. As a kind of biocatalyst, lipase enzyme has the common advantages of high efficiency, high selectivity, mild reaction conditions and so on. It is a green and environmentally friendly catalyst. It is of great significance to the scientific development of biochemistry, food and other fields of life and production.
Lipase enzyme exists widely in animals, plants and microorganisms. The seeds of oil crops, such as Castor seeds and rapeseed, contain more lipases in plants. When oil seeds germinate, lipase enzyme can cooperate with other enzymes to catalyze the decomposition of lipids to form sugars, and provide the necessary nutrients and energy for seed rooting and germination. The pancreas and adipose tissue of higher animals contain more lipase enzymes and contain less in intestinal juice. The amount of lipase enzymes, used to supplement the deficiency of pancreatic lipase in lipid digestion, contains a small amount of butyroglycerase in the gastric juice of carnivorous animals. In animals, various lipase enzymes control digestion, absorption, lipid remodeling and lipoprotein metabolism. Lipase enzyme is more abundant in bacteria, fungi and yeasts.
Because of the variety, rapid reproduction and genetic variability of microorganisms, they have a wider range of pH, temperature and substrate specificity than animals and plants. Lipase enzymes from microorganisms are generally secretory extracellular enzymes. The main fermentation microorganisms are Aspergillus niger, Candida spp. and so on. Microbial lipase enzyme is an important source of industrial lipase enzyme powder
. Generally, the characteristics of lipase enzymes from different sources are different, and it is also of great significance in theoretical research.
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