The Industrial Production of Enzymes Products
1.The sources of enzymes products
Enzymes products come from two ways: one is that enzymes products are extracted from plants and animals rich in active biological enzymes, like the trypsin will be taken from animals' pancreas and β- diastase will be from barley. The other way is that enzymes products will be made by the industrial cultivation of microorganisms, which is the main path for enzyme engineering nowadays.
2.The industrial production of enzymes products of microorganisms: the industrialization of enzymes products of microorganisms are cultivated mainly by submerging.
3.The use, keeping and storage of enzymes products
3.1 How to use enzymes products:
To fully recognize the main factors affecting enzymatic reaction is the fundamental to exert its biggest catalysis on using enzymes products. These factors primarily refer to the concentration of substrate, the enzyme concentration, activator, inhibitor, temperature and PH and actuation duration during the system of enzymatic reaction. The concentration of substrate: the maximum reaction rate is achieved in the shortest time with excessive substrates in order to save cost and time during the industrial production. The enzymes concentration: it can be seen from E+S ES—E+P of enzymatic reaction, the concentration of product P depends on the concentration of intermediate e production ES, higher with which, faster is the reaction speed.
When it comes to lots of substrates, the concentration of intermediate production ES is decided on the concentration of enzymes. The more the enzyme molecule, the more the output transferred from substrates, that is to say, the fractional conversion grows as the concentration of enzymes grows. The formula can be concluded through Michaelis equation: u=d[S]/dt=K[E] which indicates that u means reaction speed, [E] means enzyme concentration, K means velocity constants, [S] is for the concentration of substrate, and t is for time. Because the concentration of substrates is usually over, the reaction rate lies on the enzyme concentration. Activator: activator is a substance enabling enzyme efficiently plays a role in catalytic activity; however, not all enzymes need activator for the booster action.
Inhibitor is able to lower the catalytic reaction speed. The inhibition is caused by the reaction with catalyst to produce catalyst-inhibitor complex and go on reaction with either reactant. In general, heavy metal ion is the inhibitor for almost all enzymes. During the production, how inhibitors influence on enzymes should be paid much attention or understood in particular, especially the materials of equipment or parts will inhibit the vitality produced by enzymes. Temperature: temperature affects enzymes in two aspects: first, the catalytic reaction can be accelerated by increasing the temperature. Generally, when temperature goes up by 10℃, the reaction will speed up by 1 to 2 times. Secondly, when temperature rises to the denaturation temperature of the enzymes, the process of denaturalization will be accomplished. Under rather high temperature, the denaturation of the enzymes and the reaction speed are both accelerated at the same time and by the way, this denaturation is irreversible.
In the conditions of low temperature, the catalytic reaction of enzymes is slow and even hard to detect. But it will still work, so it often takes advantage of cold storage technology to keep enzymes products by which the denaturation of the enzymes is low. During production, the temperature range provided should be the most suitable for enzymes during the technique process. PH: pH exert a tremendous influence on the vitality of enzymes. Some enzymes have wide range of pH, which can perform in less control environment; some are opposite, so it only adapts relatively strict environment. The sensitivity of enzymes to pH is higher than temperature so that in lower temperature, the activity of enzymes goes down but when it is high temperature, it becomes active immediately. But for pH, when it is not inclusive among the applicable range of enzymes, the enzymes will lost all vitality completely. The denaturation of pH towards enzymes is irreversible, so pH should be strictly controlled. The actuation duration: generally speaking, the time of operation of enzymes is negatively correlated with the amount of enzymes used.
3.2 Keeping and storage
The essence of enzymes products is protein, thus the factors damaging or denaturing the protein to do harm to enzymes products. Therefore, acid, alkali and salt solution of any concentration or radiation and heating will change the conformation of enzymes products which will lost all vitality. Besides, such loss is not reversible. If possible, the enzymes products should be stored in clean and dry refrigerator, avoiding sun, rain and wind. The enzymes products should not put away in an open state; otherwise, it will go wet and then becomes bad.