It is a popular trend to add enzymes used in detergents
in recent years. Compared with traditional detergents, detergents with enzymes have stronger decontamination ability and wider application scope. Enzymatic detergents have the advantages of low temperature, mild pH value, safety and high efficiency. In some specific industries, such as cleaning protein fouling of medical equipment, adding the detergent with enzymes can quickly remove it, and the bed sheets with blood stains in hospitals can be cleaned with detergent with enzymes. The cleaning effect is not only faster, but also better.
Enzymes have high specificity, which means that it has effect to only one kind of substances, such as protease only works on proteins, lipase only works on lipids. Therefore, many kinds of enzymes are often mixed together to make a detergent with compound enzymes. Many stains are macromolecule substances, such as food residues, sweat stains, blood stains, oil stains, etc. These macromolecule substances are not water-soluble and difficult to clean. The function of enzymes is to decompose these macromolecule substances into water-soluble small molecule substances so as to remove dirt conveniently.
The common enzymes in detergents are alkaline protease, alkaline amylase, alkaline cellulase and alkaline lipase. They can be used in combination or separately according to the use of detergents. Following is an introduction to the functions of various proteases:
1. Alkaline protease
can hydrolyze proteins into water-soluble small molecules. The blood stain, milk stain and soy sauce stain on clothes will be enzymatically hydrolyzed under the action of alkaline protease. The structure will be relaxed and disintegrated. After a little scrubbing, the final stain will fall off from the clothes. Alkaline protease is mainly aimed at protein stain.
2. Alkaline amylase
can rapidly decompose starch into maltose, glucose and other soluble components. Therefore, amylase is used in washing formulations to remove starch-containing dirt, such as from noodles, chocolate and so on.
3. Alkaline cellulase itself can not remove dirt from clothes. Its function is to make the structure of fibers fluffy, so that dust and dirt penetrated deep into the fibers, which can fully contact with laundry detergent, so as to achieve better decontamination effect. Alkaline cellulase can remove the microfibers produced by wear on cotton fibers during washing and wearing, thus restoring the original smooth state of cotton fibers. It should be noted that excessive use can also damage natural fibre fabrics such as cotton and hemp. Therefore, it is necessary to test the amount of additives.
4. Alkaline lipase can hydrolyze fat into glycerol and free fatty acids, which are easier to dissolve than the original fat. Oil stains in food and human sebum can be quickly removed by adding alkaline lipase containing fat in detergent.